The Impacts of Explicit and Implicit Instructions of English Connectors on EFL Students’ Reading Comprehension

Adjie Putra Pangestu, Jumatul Hidayah, Eka Apriani


There have been many studies on English grammar, but a dearth of studies has been conducted in the cross-sectional fields such as seeking how the field of grammar makes contributions to reading comprehension. Accordingly, the current study sought to find out the impacts of explicit and implicit instructions of English connectors on EFL students’ reading comprehension. 50 third semester students from an English department at a university in Bengkulu were incorporated as the samples. Adopting a quasi-experimental method, those 50 students were split into two classes, the so-called experimental and control classes. Students in the experimental class were taught English connectors explicitly, and those of the control class were taught English connectors implicitly. Before eight times of treatments in the form of the two ways of instructions, students of the two group were given a valid and reliable reading comprehension pre-test, and a similar construct of post-test was given after the eighth treatments ended. The data of the current study were analyzed by deploying paired sample t-test and independent sample t-test. The present study revealed that explicit and implicit instructions of English connectors had positive impacts on EFL students’ reading comprehension. However, the explicit instruction of English connectors enhanced EFL students’ reading comprehension more significantly and more effectively. It is recommended that further studies be conducted to replicate the present study in different contexts for the sake of providing rich data to confirm the current study’s results.



Explicit instruction; Implicit instruction; English connectors; EFL reading comprehension

Full Text:



Anggraini, D., Hidayah, J., Edy, S., & Ariani, D. (2021). Indonesian EFL Teachers’ Attitudes and Perceptions of Interculturality in English Learning. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, 8(2), 435–451.

Apriani, E., & Hidayah, J. (2019). The ICT Used by the English Lecturers for Non English Study Program Students at STAIN Curup. Vision: Journal For Language And Foreign Language Learning.

Apriani, E., Supardan, D., & Sartika, E. (2019). Utilizing ICT to develop student’s language ethic at Islamic university. POTENSIA.

Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Sorensen, C. K., Walker, D. A., & Razavieh, A. (2010). Introduction to research in education. In Measurement (8th ed., Vol. 4, Issue 43). Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Aryadi, R., Hidayah, J., & Edy, S. (2020). The portrait of English teaching grounded in interculturality. Journal of English Education and Teaching, 4(3), 323–347.

Aryadoust, V., & Baghaei, P. (2016). Does EFL Readers’ Lexical and Grammatical Knowledge Predict Their Reading Ability? Insights From a Perceptron Artificial Neural Network Study. Educational Assessment, 21(2), 135–156.

Asiyaban, A. R., Yamini, M., Bagheri, M. S., & Yarmohammadi, L. (2020). Implicit/explicit knowledge and its contribution towards tense consistency employment across EFL learners’ proficiency levels. Cogent Education, 7(1).

Basturkmen, H. (2018). Explicit Versus Implicit Grammar Knowledge. In The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching (pp. 1–6). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E. (1999). Longman grammar of spoken and written English. Longman.

Bolton, K., Nelson, G., & Hung, J. (2002). A corpus-based study of connectors in student writing. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 7(2), 165–182.

Brown, H. D. (2000). Principle of Language Learning and Teaching. Longman.

Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by Principles An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy (Second Edi). Longman.

Cano, F., García, Á., Berbén, A. B. G., & Justicia, F. (2014). Science Learning: A path analysis of its links with reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement. International Journal of Science Education, 36(10), 1710–1732.

Carella, B. (2011). Argument and Rhetoric. Adverbial Connectors in the History of English (Topics in Linguistics 64). English Studies, 92(5), 584–586.

Carrió-Pastor, M. L. (2013). A contrastive study of the variation of sentence connectors in academic English. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 12(3), 192–202.

Carter, R., & McCarthy, M. (2006). Cambridge grammar of English: A comprehensive guide. Cambridge University Press.

Chung, J. S. L. (2000). Signals and reading comprehension - Theory and practice. System, 28(2), 247–259.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011). Research Methods in Education. In Research methods in education. Routledge.

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). SAGE publications, Inc.

Criado, R. (2016). Insights from Skill Acquisition Theory for grammar activity sequencing and design in Foreign Language Teaching. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 10(2), 121–132.

Das, D., & Taboada, M. (2018). Signalling of Coherence Relations in Discourse, Beyond Discourse Markers. Discourse Processes, 55(8), 743–770.

Davatgari Asl, H., & Moradinejad, A. (2016). The effect of explicit instruction of discourse markers on Iranian EFL learners’ speaking ability. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 3(5), 190–202.

Deng, W. Q., Asma, S., & Paré, G. (2014). Meta-analysis of SNPs involved in variance heterogeneity using Levene’s test for equal variances. European Journal of Human Genetics, 22(3), 427–430.

Dupont, M. (2015). Word order in English and French. English Text Construction, 8(1), 88–124.

Farzam, M. (2018). The effect of cognitive and metacognitive strategy training on intermediate Iranian EFL learners’ willingness to communicate. DhamothaInternational Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 7(1), 193–202.

Fauziati, E. (2014). Methods of Teaching English as a Foreign Language. Era PustakaUtama.

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P., & Borg, W. R. (2003). Educational research: An introduction (7th ed.). Allyn and Bacon.

García-Fuentes, C., & McDonough, K. (2018). The effect of explicit instruction and task repetition on Colombian EFL students’ use of politeness strategies during disagreements. Language Learning Journal, 46(4), 470–482.

Glaser, R. E. (2014). Levene’s Robust Test of Homogeneity of Variances. In Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Habók, A., Magyar, A., & Hui, S. K. F. (2019). The effects of EFL reading comprehension and certain learning-related factors on EFL learners’ reading strategy use. Cogent Education, 6(1).

Halliday, M. A. K., & Hasan, R. (1976). Cohesion in English. English Language Series. Longman.

Hamied, F. A. (2012). English in Multicultural and Multilingual Indonesian Education. Multilingual Education, 1(English as an International Language in Asia: Implications for Language Education), 63–78.

Harputlu, L., & Ceylan, E. (2014). The Effects of Motivation and Metacognitive Strategy Use on EFL Listening Proficiency. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 158, 124–131.

Hellerstein-Yehezkel, D. (2017). The path to reading comprehension through intercultural competence in the multicultural EFL classroom*. Language and Intercultural Communication, 17(3), 323–343.

Hidayah, J. (2017). Speaking and Writing Assessment Applied by English Lecturers of State College for Islamic Studies (STAIN) at Curup-Bengkulu. Academic Journal of English Language.

Hyland, K. (2005). Representing readers in writing: student and expert practices. Linguistics and Education, 16, 363–377.

Islam, E. A.-. (2016). A New Literacy: The role of technology to develop student’s character. Ta’dib: Jurnal Pendidikan.

Keenan, J. M., Betjemann, R. S., & Olson, R. K. (2008). Reading comprehension tests vary in the skills they assess: Differential dependence on decoding and oral comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading, 12(3), 281–300.

Kirkpatrick, A., & Liddicoat, A. J. (2017). Language education policy and practice in East and Southeast Asia. Languange Teaching, 50(2), 155–188.

Kleijn, S. (2018). Clozing in on readability : How linguistic features affect and predict text comprehension and on-line processing [Utrecht University].

Kleijn, Suzanne, Pander Maat, H. L. W., & Sanders, T. J. M. (2019). Comprehension Effects of Connectives Across Texts, Readers, and Coherence Relations. Discourse Processes, 56(5–6), 447–464.

Kusumaningputri, R., & Widodo, H. P. (2018). Promoting Indonesian university students’ critical intercultural awareness in tertiary EAL classrooms: The use of digital photograph-mediated intercultural tasks. System, 72, 49–61.

Landi, N., & Ryherd, K. (2017). Understanding specific reading comprehension deficit: A review. Language and Linguistics Compass, 11(2).

Lauder, A. (2008). The status and function of English in Indonesia: A review of key factors. Makara, Social Humaniora, 12(1), 9–20.

Law, Y. K. (2009). The role of attribution beliefs, motivation and strategy use in Chinese fifth-graders’ reading comprehension. Educational Research, 51(1), 77–95.

Lotfipour, S. K. (2006). Towards the textuality of a text: On a grammar for communication. In Journal of Language Teaching and Research (Issue 2). Forouzesh Publications.

Martin, J. R., & Rose, D. (2003). Working with discourse. Meaning beyond the clause. Continuum.

Martina, F., Syafryadin, S., Rakhmanina, L., & Juwita, S. (2020). The Effect of Time Constraint on Student Reading Comprehension Test Performance in Narrative Text. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, 8(3), 323-329. doi:

Mauranen, A. (1993). Cultural differences in academic rhetoric: A textlinguistic study. Peter Lang.

Mohammadi, R. R., Saeidi, M., & Ahangari, S. (2020). Self-regulated learning instruction and the relationships among self-regulation, reading comprehension and reading problem solving: PLS-SEM approach. Cogent Education, 7(1).

Mojarrabi Tabrizi, H., Behnam, B., Saeidi, M., & Lu, X. (2019). The effect of soft vs. hard scaffolding on reading comprehension skill of EFL learners in different experimental conditions. Cogent Education, 6(1).

Molencki, R. (2011). Ursula Lenker, Argument and Rhetoric: Adverbial Connectors in the History of English. Anglia, 129(1–2), 139–142.

Namaziandost, E., Esfahani, F. R., & Ahmadi, S. (2019). Varying levels of difficulty in L2 reading materials in the efl classroom: Impact on comprehension and motivation. Cogent Education, 6(1).

Parra-Frutos, I. (2009). The behaviour of the modified Levene’s test when data are not normally distributed. Computational Statistics, 24(4), 671–693.

Potgieter, A. P., & Conradie, S. (2013). Explicit grammar teaching in EAL classrooms: Suggestions from isiXhosa speakers’ L2 data. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies, 31(1), 111–127.

Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., & Svartvik, J. (1985). A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Longman.

Sanjaya, H., Apriani, E., & And, S. E. (2020). Using web blogs in teaching writing for EFL students. Journal of English Education.

Sanz, C. (2018). Implicit Versus Explicit Grammar Feedback. In The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching (pp. 1–7). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Saputri, Y. A., Rizal, S., & Afriani, Z. L. (2021). An Analysis on English Teacher Strategies in Teaching Reading Comprehension. Jadila: Journal of Development and Innovation in Language and Literature Education, 1(3), 353-361.

Setyono, B., & Widodo, H. P. (2019). The representation of multicultural values in the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture-Endorsed EFL textbook: a critical discourse analysis. Intercultural Education, 1–15.

Shang, H. F. (2016). Exploring demographic and motivational factors associated with hypertext reading by English as a foreign language (EFL) students. Behaviour and Information Technology, 35(7), 559–571.

Sukyadi, D. (2015). The teaching of English at secondary schools in Indonesia. Secondary School English Education in Asia: From Policy to Practice, 123–147.

Swan, M. (2005). Practical English Usage (3rd Ed). Oxford University Press.

Tavakoli, M., & Zarrinabadi, N. (2018). Differential effects of explicit and implicit corrective feedback on EFL learners’ willingness to communicate. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 12(3), 247–259.

Teng, M. F. (2019). The role of metacognitive knowledge and regulation in mediating university EFL learners ’ writing performance. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1–15.

Tsai, K. J. (2019). Corpora and dictionaries as learning aids: inductive versus deductive approaches to constructing vocabulary knowledge. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 32(8), 805–826.

Tümen Akyıldız, S., & Çelik, V. (2021). Using WhatsApp to support EFL reading comprehension skills with Turkish early secondary learners. Language Learning Journal.

Uztosun, M. S. (2017). The development of a scale for measuring the self-regulated motivation for improving speaking English as a foreign language. The Language Learning Journal, 1–13.

Wang, H., & Chen, C. W. (2019). Learning English from YouTubers : English L2 learners ’ self-regulated language learning on YouTube. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 0(0), 1–14.

Wang, Y., & Guo, M. (2014). A short analysis of discourse coherence. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 5(2), 460–465.

Wawire, B. A., & Zuilkowski, S. S. (2021). The role of vocabulary and decoding language skills in reading comprehension: a cross-linguistic perspective. International Multilingual Research Journal, 15(1), 23–42.

Webb, S., & Nation, P. (2017). How vocabulary is learned. Oxford University Press.

Yakut, A. D., & Aydın, S. (2017). An experimental study on the effects of the use of blogs on EFL reading comprehension. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 11(1), 1–16.

Yazan, B. (2015). Three Approaches to Case Study Methods in Education : Yin , Merriam , and Stake Three Approaches to Case Study Methods in Education : Yin , Merriam ,. The Qualitative Report, 20(2), 134–152.

Zarei, M., Ahour, T., & Seifoori, Z. (2020). Impacts of implicit, explicit, and emergent feedback strategies on EFL learners’ motivation, attitude and perception. Cogent Education, 7(1).

Zhang, D. (2012). Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study. Modern Language Journal, 96(4), 558–575.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Linguists : Journal Of Linguistics and Language Teaching

Program Studi Tadris Bahasa Inggris, Gedung C.4.2
Fakultas Tarbiyah dan Tadris
UIN Fatmawati Sukarno Bengkulu
Jl.Raden Fatah, Pagar Dewa Kota Bengkulu, Bengkulu, Indonesia
Telp. (0736)51171,51172,51276 Fax.(0736) 51172
Website :
Email : 




Google ScholarGarudaRelated image